- Proper noun. A country in Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. The Country extends from the Gulf of Finland to the Pacific Ocean, and was part of the USSR from 1922 to 1991. Co-official name - ''Russian Federation,'' formerly the ''Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic'' (RSFSR), Capital and largest city ''Moscow''.
- Proper noun. (historical, informal) The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (a very common name, although more formally Russia, the RSFSR, was one of several constituent republics of the USSR).
- Proper noun. (historical) The Russian Empire.
- Proper noun. (historical, dated) Rus, the medieval East Slavic state.