- Proper noun. A native or inhabitant of the (1) united nation of Israel (under the Judges, and then kings Saul, David and Solomon), or (2) the later northern kingdom centered in Samaria, distinct from kingdom of Judah centered in Jerusalem.
- Proper noun. A member of the Twelve Tribes of Israel and a descendant of Jacob.
- Adjective. Of or pertaining to the ancient nation(s) of Israel, their inhabitants, or to the descendants of the patriarch Jacob.